Testing methods for coronavirus are ranked based on the principle used and this is the most important criterion.
The second criterion is the time to obtain the result. There is a third feature – some of the tests do not require the use of a device for reading. This was explained by Prof. Dr. Dobrin Svinarov – Head of the Clinical Laboratory and Clinical Pharmacology at the University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, quoted by the newspaper Standart.
The first criterion is the most important. According to the principle of coronavirus infection research, the tests are divided into three groups – genetic, antigenic and serological tests, said Prof. Dr. Svinarov.
Genetic tests prove specific areas of viral RNA. These are the diagnostic tests with the highest reliability, early in the development of the infectious process, there should be no symptoms at the beginning of the infection.
During the incubation period, when the patient is asymptomatic and most contagious, these tests prove this year’s coronavirus infection. They are positive in most of the clinical phase of the manifestation, if any.
The second group of tests is almost never used, they are relatively the least common, called tests that detect viral particles – antigenic tests. They also identify pieces of the virus or sections of the virus, but usually protein sections.
The third group of tests is called serological. These tests prove antibodies in the body of the patient who has encountered the virus, whether or not he had clinical symptoms, ie. serological tests show the body’s response to the virus. They do not prove the presence of the virus. They are not suitable for early diagnosis.
Genetic tests are diagnostic – with the detection of viral RNA.