The list of candidates is long and was published on the website of the World Health Organization (WHO). It is clear that there are currently 118 candidates for vaccines. Of these, 8 are the most advanced and have reached a clinical phase, which in turn consists of three stages. The remaining 110 are in the preclinical phase. They were tested in a laboratory as well as on animals to evaluate their characteristics and decide whether to move to human trials, said Sergio Abrignani, an immunologist at the State University of Milan and director of the National Institute of Molecular Genetics. Romeo and Enrique Invernitsy “.
Vaccines are generally divided into four families – viral vectors (virus-like particles); recombinant proteins; nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNS and RNA); inactivated or attenuated viruses.
“Currently, all research groups have one main goal – to inject antibodies against the Spike protein of the new coronavirus, which is the key with which the virus enters our cells. These must be antibodies that have the capacity to neutralize the virus entering the human cell. “Abriniani told the publication quoted by BTA.
A vaccine available to everyone could be ready in early 2022, two years after the start of coronavirus research and vaccine development efforts, the scientist added.
The production of biological medicine is a complex and expensive undertaking. That is why an alliance between the largest vaccine companies will be needed to quickly produce a biological vaccine in billions of doses, because if only one company does it alone, in addition to money, it will take 2-3 years to finalizing the endeavor, says the specialist.
The Italian scientist adds that the vaccines are active immunological interventionbecause they cause the production of neutralized antibodies by healthy people who have been vaccinated before being exposed to the infection.
However, there is also passive immunotherapy aimed at those who are already infected or ill. In it, the antibodies are produced industrially and then injected to block an active infection, and hence the disease. Passive immunotherapy can be performed with neutralized antibody-enriched plasma from recovered patients or neutralized laboratory-derived monoclonal antibodies.
Both methods are being studied now, including in Italy.
British researchers will test the vaccine on more than 10,000 people
British scientists who are testing an experimental vaccine against the new coronavirus are preparing to test it on more than 10,000 people, the Associated Press reported in the meantime. Last month, researchers at Oxford University began immunizing more than 1,000 volunteers as part of a preliminary vaccine safety trial. On Friday, they announced that their next goal is to vaccinate 10,260 people in the UK, including children and the elderly.
“Clinical trials are progressing very well and we are now in the early stages of assessing whether the vaccine elicits an immune response in adult patients and testing whether the vaccine can protect broad populations,” said Andrew Pollard, head of the team that develops the vaccine. Oxford.
Earlier this week, pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca announced it had signed the first contracts for 400 million doses of the Oxford vaccine, backed by a $ 1 billion investment from a U.S. government agency, to develop, manufacture and supply the vaccine in the fall.
More than ten different experimental vaccines are in early-stage human clinical trials, most of them in China, the United States and Europe.
Russians are unofficially testing a vaccine on themselves
Unofficial trials of the vaccine against Kovid-19, proposed for approval, were carried out by volunteers from the National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology “Gamaleya” at the Russian Ministry of Health, TASS reported at the same time.
According to the director of the center Alexander Ginzburg, the tests passed successfully without any side effects. All volunteers enjoyed good health and successfully performed their duties. The experiment was successful and the laboratory is now expected to receive permission for official testing from the Ministry of Health. Meanwhile, the authors of the development of the new vaccine themselves have proven that their product is successful.
Earlier, Ginzburg said that the scientists-developers are ready to test the vaccine on themselves before they get permission to conduct clinical trials.