According to a report published in the journal Nature, more than 90 vaccines against the SARS-Cove-2 virus are in various stages of development in many parts of the world. The research teams of universities and pharmaceutical companies are mainly responsible for this phenomenon. At least six vaccines have reached clinical testing in humans and others in animal testing.
Ways to vaccinate
The virus must be transmitted to the body through a vaccine in the form of an antigen that does not cause the virus but causes the immune system. Researchers are using the vaccine against coronavirus in at least eight ways.
Seven research groups are working on a vaccine for the vaccine, using the actual SARS-Cove-2 virus. These are the vaccines we use against measles and measles. These vaccines can only be used for public use after extensive security testing. A Beijing company called Sinovac Biotec has begun testing the inactivated SARS-COV-2 vaccine in humans, according to the journal Nature. The above vaccines are being developed in two ways. The first way is to weaken the virus in a traditional way. For this purpose, the virus is repeatedly transported by animal or human cells. As a result, the mutation of viruses causes them to lose their ability to cause disease. Codagenix, based in Farmingdale, New York, is working with the Serum Institute in Pune to develop the vaccine, according to a report in the Nature Journal. They follow the pathway through which the genetic code is manipulated, weakening the production of viral proteins and weakening the corona virus. The second way to make virus vaccines is by using inactivated viruses. The use of chemicals or heat, such as formaldehyde, can destroy the virus’s ability to cause disease. The drawback of this method is that large quantities of pathogenic viruses are required initially.
Nucleic acid vaccines
At least 20 research groups are working to develop nucleic acid vaccines. It is a method of injecting the genetic material (RNA or DNA) into human cells, suggesting the production of the coronavirus spike protein. Using the method of electroporation, small holes in the cells make entry into the cells of DNA easier. RNA is also able to enter the cell as it provides a shield made of fat. The virus, according to the RNA / DNA directive, makes many copies of the protein. Spike proteins can stimulate the body’s immune system. DNA / RNA vaccines are safe and easy to develop. Remember there is no need for the virus here. Only genetic material is enough. But their effectiveness has not been proven and this technology has not been used in any currently licensed vaccines.
About 25 groups claim to be doing research on viral-vector vaccines. An example of a virus is the genetic engineering of the measles or adenovirus virus. As a result, these viruses are able to produce proteins for the corona virus. Viruses do not cause disease because they are weakened. There are two types of viral-vector vaccines. The newly approved Ebola vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that multiplies in cells, as the cells are proliferating (like the weakened measles virus) and the critical genes are silenced (the adenovirus). These vaccines are safe and potent for the immune system. But when you combine the vector virus with the body’s immune system, there is a problem of effectiveness. Existing licensed vaccines have not been used in a multiplication of cells. But they have long been used in gene therapy. These vaccines may also require booster doses to maintain immunity. According to Nature Journal, the vaccine is being tried against the world famous Johnson & Johnson Covidin.
Protein based vaccines
Many researchers prefer to follow the method of injecting corona virus proteins into the body. Protein fragments or protein beads that are similar to the outer covering of coronaviruses can be used. There are about 28 researchers working on the vaccine using parts of the viral protein. They focus on the spike protein or their receptor binding site. Monkeys given the vaccine have been found to be immune to the SARS virus, but have not been tested in humans. For these vaccines to be effective, adjuvants such as the immune system must be added to the vaccine, and many booster doses are needed.
The virus snares vaccine
The crust of an empty virus without a genetic material can mimic the virus and produce immunity. Due to lack of genetic material there is no chance of infection. These are called virus-like particles. There are about five institutions doing research on these. These are powerful immune systems but difficult to construct.
Are Current Vaccines Effective?
Beyond all of these pathways, a bunch of researchers are studying whether existing vaccines (such as polio and BCG) can overcome coronavirus by giving rise to a general immunity. Others are genetically altering the immune cells of the body and trying to see if they can kill the virus.
Developing a safe, effective, long-lasting vaccine for the community and applying it to humans is a challenging task. But it is essential for the success of mankind in the 21st century.
Viruses and the body’s immune system
The coronavirus, which enters the human body, binds to the ACE-2 receptor on the surface of human body cells using spike proteins, which are full of spike proteins. Thereby, viruses that enter the human cell are exposed to new versions of their genetic material, the RNA. The human immune system has the ability to detect disease cells, including the corona, that enter the body. Antigens are alien substances that thus stimulate the immune system and initiate action. The virus here is antigen. Once the antigen enters the body, the immune system begins to respond to a variety of cells. The main immune cells are the white blood cells (WBC). Specialized antigen-presenting cells swallow the virus and activate T-helper cells. T-helper cells enable the immune system to respond more. B-cells start producing immune proteins, or antibodies. Antibodies prevent viruses from entering the cells. Cytotoxic – T cells recognize and kill virus-infected cells. B and T memory cells are long-lived (T and B memory cells). These will stay in the body for months or years and provide future immunity against similar pathogens. This vaccine is the basis of vaccination.
This immune system is retained by the T and B memory cells generated by the immune system during the first infection, and is rapidly detected when the same disease reaches the body.
A vaccine that is not capable of causing infection, or the part of the germ or the product of the vaccine is injected into the body. The body regards them as antigens and stimulates the immune system as usual. The main difference is that the vaccine does not cause infection. The white blood cells become active and antibody is produced. And a defensive memory is created. At another time, when a vaccine-related disease is present in the body, the antibodies and white blood cells are quickly attacked and destroyed. Through vaccines, we are reminding the immune system to do this. As long as there are antibodies and memory cells, the body will continue to resist the disease.
English Summary: Here are 9 things to know about vaccines to save the world